Cryptome DVDs are offered by Cryptome. Donate $25 for two DVDs of the Cryptome 12-and-a-half-years collection of 47,000 files from June 1996 to January 2009 (~6.9 GB). Click Paypal or mail check/MO made out to John Young, 251 West 89th Street, New York, NY 10024. The collection includes all files of cryptome.org, cryptome.info, jya.com, cartome.org, eyeball-series.org and iraq-kill-maim.org, and 23,100 (updated) pages of counter-intelligence dossiers declassified by the US Army Information and Security Command, dating from 1945 to 1985.The DVDs will be sent anywhere worldwide without extra cost.

Google
 
Web cryptome.org cryptome.info jya.com eyeball-series.org cryptome.cn


11 October 2008. A points that material still available here appears to be the same:

http://www.fdic.gov/bank/historical/s%26l/index.html

9 October 2008

This material was been removed from the FDIC web site since 8 October 2008, formerly at:

http://www.fdic.gov/bank/historical/sl/

Thanks to A for archiving and sharing.




The S&L Crisis: A Chrono-Bibliography

  • [NOTE: This chronology and bibliography is provided solely for informational purposes. The inclusion or exclusion of a source constitutes neither an endorsement nor a rejection by the FDIC of the opinions expressed in that source.]
 
General Books and Articles   A basic bibliography to provide an overview of the S&L Crisis.
Causes of the S&L Crisis   Background materials for understanding what led to the S&L Crisis.
Charles Keating and Lincoln Savings and Loan   Details on one of the costliest S&L failures that involved 5 U.S. Senators.
Criminal Activity Associated with S&L Failures   The goods on specific criminal investigations of S&L owners and directors.
Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980   Details on the 1980 law (DIDMCA) that eased the distinctions among savings institutions.
Deregulation of the S&Ls   Working papers and analysis covering the deregulation of the S&L industry that led to the crisis.
Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA)   The law enacted in August, 1989, to bail out the S&L crisis and create the Resolution Trust Corporation.
Garn - St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982   Analyses of the 1982 law that allowed S&L's to diversify their activities with the view of increasing profits.
Interest Rate Vulnerability   Bibliography for understanding S&L interest rates, and S&L vulnerability during this time period.
Southwest Plan   The plan to consolidate and package insolvent Texas S&Ls and sell them to the highest bidder.
State Deposit Insurance Funds - Ohio and Maryland   S&L failures in Ohio and Maryland and the end of the State Deposit Insurance Funds/
Taxation and Accounting bibliography   Understanding the tax and accounting rules for S&L's
 
1966-1979   Market interest rates fluctuate with increasing intensity and S&Ls experience difficulty with each interest rate rise. Interest rate ceilings prevent S&Ls from paying competitive interest rates on deposits. Thus, every time the market interest rates rise, substantial amounts of funds are withdrawn by consumers for placement in instruments with higher rates of return. This process of deposit withdrawal ("disintermediation") and the subsequent deposit influx when rates rise ("reintermediation") leaves S&Ls highly vulnerable. Concurrently, money market funds become a source of competition for S&L deposits. S&Ls are additionally restricted by not being allowed to enter into business other than accepting deposits and granting home mortgage loans.

  • 1967--State of Texas approves major liberalization of S&L powers. Property development loans of up to 50% of net worth are allowed.

    1972--Hunt Commission recommendations would have created federal savings banks to replace S&Ls. The banks would have had additional authority to make commercial loans and invest in commercial paper.

    1973--FINE Study would have granted same powers for S&Ls as for banks, including checking accounts. Also recommends consolidation of the regulators. Interest rate insurance was recommended if S&Ls are to remain primarily involved in housing finance.

    1978--Financial Institutions Regulatory and Interest Rate Control Act of 1978 enacted. Weak version of previous recommendations. Allows S&Ls to invest up 5% of assets in each of land development, construction, and education loans.

    1979--Doubling of oil prices. Inflation moves into double digits for second time in five years.

1980-1982   Statutory and regulatory changes give the S&L industry new powers in the hopes of their entering new areas of business and subsequently returning to profitability. For the first time, the government approves measures intended to increase S&L profits as opposed to promoting housing and homeownership.

  • March, 1980--Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act (DIDMCA) enacted. The law is a Carter Administration initiative aimed at eliminating many of the distinctions among different types of depository institutions and ultimately removing interest rate ceiling on deposit accounts. Authority for federal S&Ls to make ADC (acquisition, development, construction) loans is expanded. Deposit insurance limit raised to $100,000 from $40,000. This last provision is added without debate.

    November, 1980--Federal Home Loan Bank Board reduces net worth requirement for insured S&Ls from 5 to 4 percent of total deposits. Bank Board also removes limits on the amounts of brokered deposits an S&L can hold.

    August, 1981--Tax Reform Act of 1981 enacted. Provides powerful tax incentives for real-estate investment by individuals. This legislation helps create a "boom" in real estate and contributes to over-building.

    September, 1981--Federal Home Loan Bank Board permits troubled S&Ls to issue "income capital certificates" that are purchased by FSLIC and included as capital. Rather than showing that an institution is insolvent, the certificates make it appear solvent.

1982-1985   Reductions in the Bank Board's regulatory and supervisory staff. In 1983, a starting S&L examiner is paid $14,000 a year. The average examiner has only two years on the job. Examiner salaries are paid through OMB, not the Bank Board. During this period of supervisory and examination retraction, industry growth increases. Industry assets increase by 56% between 1982 and 1985. 40 Texas S&Ls triple in size between 1982 and 1986; many of them grow by 100% each year. California S&Ls follow a similar pattern.

  • January, 1982--Federal Home Loan Bank Board reduces net worth requirement for insured S&Ls from 4 to 3 percent of total deposits. Additionally, S&Ls are allowed to meet the low net worth standard not in terms of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), but of even more liberal regulatory accounting principles (RAP).

    April, 1982--Bank Board eliminates restrictions on minimum numbers of S&L stock holders. Previously, it required at least 400 stock holders of which at least 125 had to be from "local community", with no individual owning more than 10% of stock and no "controlling group" more than 25%. Bank Board's new ownership regulation would allow a single owner. Purchases of S&Ls were made easier by allowing buyers to put up land and other real estate, as opposed to cash.

    December, 1982--Garn - St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 enacted. This Reagan Administration initiative is designed to complete the process of giving expanded powers to federally chartered S&Ls and enables them to diversify their activities with the view of increasing profits. Major provisions include: elimination of deposit interest rate ceilings; elimination of the previous statutory limit on loan to value ratio; and expansion of the asset powers of federal S&Ls by permitting up to 40% of assets in commercial mortgages, up to 30% of assets in consumer loans, up to 10% of assets in commercial loans, and up to 10% of assets in commercial leases.

    December, 1982--In response to the massive defections of state chartered S&Ls to the federal system, Nolan Bill passes in California. Allows California-chartered S&Ls to invest 100% of deposits in any kind of venture. Similar plans adopted in Texas and Florida.

    1983--Lower market interest rates return many S&Ls to health. 35% of institutions, however, still sustain losses. 9% of all S&Ls (representing 10% of industry assets) are insolvent by GAAP standards.

    March, 1983--Edwin Gray becomes Chairman of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. Beginning in 1984 and continuing throughout his tenure, regulatory and supervisory measures passed by the Bank Board begin the reversing of deregulation.

    November, 1983--Bank Board raises net worth requirement for newly chartered S&Ls to 7%.

    March, 1984--Failure of Empire Savings of Mesquite, TX. "Land flips" and other criminal activities are a pattern at Empire. This failure would eventually cost the taxpayers approximately $300 million.

    April, 1984--Bank Board moves jointly with the FDIC to attempt to eliminate deposit insurance for brokered deposits. Federal court rejects this attempt in mid-1984 as overstepping statutory limits.

    July, 1984--Bank Board requires S&L management to adopt policies and procedures for managing interest rate risk.

    January, 1985--Bank Board limits the amount of brokered deposits to 5% of deposits at FSLIC insured institutions failing to meet their net worth requirements. Bank Board also limits direct investment (equity securities, real estate, service corporations, and operating subsidiaries) to the greater of 10% of assets or twice the S&L's net worth, provided the institution meets regulatory net worth.

    March, 1985--Ohio bank holiday. Anticipated failure of Home State Savings Bank of Cincinnati, OH and possible depletion of Ohio state deposit insurance fund cause Governor Celeste to close Ohio S&Ls. Eventually, those that can qualify for federal deposit insurance are allowed to reopen.

    May, 1985--S&L failures in Maryland eventually cause loss to state deposit insurance fund and Maryland taxpayers of $185 million. Ohio and Maryland S&L failures helped kill state deposit insurance funds.

    July, 1985--Chairman Gray begins transfer of federal examiners to the twelve regional Federal Home Loan Banks so that they are no longer overseen by OMB and their salaries are paid directly by the Bank Board system.

    August, 1985--Only $4.6 billion in FSLIC insurance fund. Chairman Gray tries to gain support for recapitalizing FSLIC on Capitol Hill. In 1986, GAO estimates the loss to the insurance fund to be around $20 billion.

    December, 1985--Bank Board allows S&L examiners to "classify" questionable loans and other assets for the purpose of requiring loan loss reserves.

1986-1989   Compounding of losses as insolvent institutions are allowed to remain open and grow, allowing ever increasing losses to accumulate.

  • August, 1986--Bank Board raises net worth standard gradually to 6% with up to 2% points offset for reduced interest rate-risk.

    1987--Losses at Texas S&Ls comprise more than one-half of all S&L losses nationwide, and of the 20 largest losses, 14 are in Texas. Texas economy in major recession: crude oil prices fall by nearly 50%, office vacancy is over 30%, and real estate prices collapse.

    January, 1987--GAO declares FSLIC fund insolvent by at least $3.8 billion. Recapitalization has stalled on Capitol Hill until now by claims of powerful S&L lobbyists that Bank Board regulations are too harsh and arbitrary.

    February, 1987--Bank Board requires prior supervisory approval for S&Ls making direct investment in excess of 2.5 times their tangible capital.

    April, 1987--Edwin Gray ends his term as chairman of Federal Home Loan Bank Board in June. Before his departure, he is summoned to the office of Sen. Dennis DeConcini. DeConcini, with four other Senators (John McCain, Alan Cranston, John Glenn, and Donald Riegle) question Gray about the appropriateness of Bank Board investigations into Charles Keating's Lincoln Savings and Loan. All five senators, who have received campaign contributions from Keating, would become known as the "Keating Five". The subsequent Lincoln failure is estimated to have cost the taxpayers over $2 billion.

    May, 1987--Bank Board begins phasing out the remains of the liberal RAP accounting standards. S&Ls must conform to GAAP accounting standards, as banks do. Effective date of this rule postponed by new Chairman of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, M. Danny Wall, to 1/1/1989.

    August, 1987--Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 enacted. The Act authorizes $10.8 billion recapitalization of the FSLIC with only $3.75 billion authorized in any 12-month period. Also contains forbearance measures designed to postpone or prevent S&L closures.

    February, 1988--Bank Board introduces the "Southwest Plan" to consolidate and package insolvent Texas S&Ls and sell them to the highest bidder. The strategy is to resolve insolvencies quickly while conserving scarce cash for FSLIC. The Bank Board uses a number of strategies to pay for the difference between assets and liabilities of the failed institutions: FSLIC notes, tax incentives, and income, capital value and yield guarantees. The Bank Board disposes of 205 S&Ls through the Southwest Plan with assets of $101 billion.

    November, 1988--George Bush elected President. S&L problem not part of election debate.

    1989--President Bush unveils S&L bailout plan in February. In August, Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA). FIRREA abolishes the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and FSLIC, switches S&L regulation to newly created Office of Thrift Supervision. Deposit insurance function shifted to the FDIC. A new entity, the Resolution Trust Corporation is created to resolve the insolvent S&Ls.

    Other major provisions of FIRREA include: $50 billion of new borrowing authority, with most financed from general revenues and the industry; meaningful net worth requirements and regulation by the OTS and FDIC; allocation funds to the Justice Department to help finance prosecution of S&L crimes. Additional bank crime legislation the next year (i.e., the Crime Control Act of 1990) mandates a study by the National Commission on Financial Institution Reform, Recovery and Enforcement to uncover the causes of the S&L crisis, and come up with recommendations to prevent future debacles.

Last Updated 12/20/2002 library@fdic.gov




General Books and Articles



Adams, James R., The Big Fix: Inside the S&L Scandal: How an Unholy Alliance of Politics and Money Destroyed America's Banking System, New York: Wiley Publishers, 1990.

Annual Survey Issue, "Financial Institutions and Regulations, the S&L Crisis: Death and Transfiguration," 59 Fordham Law Review S1 (1991).

Day, Kathleen, S&L Hell: The People and the Politics Behind the $1 Trillion Savings and Loan Scandal, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1993.

DeSoto, Richard J. and Lionel C. Bascom, Bailout: The Bankrupting of America, Danbury, CT: Futura Press, 1992.

Eichler, Ned, The Thrift Debacle, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Langston, E.A. and Stephen Brandt, Understanding the S&L Crisis: A Guide for Beginners and Congressmen, Washington, DC: Squeaky Wheel Press, 1990.

Lowy, Martin E., High Rollers: Inside the Savings and Loan Debacle, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991.

Mayer, Martin, The Greatest-Ever Bank Robbery: The Collapse of the Savings and Loan Industry, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.

Pilzer, Paul Z., Other People's Money: The Inside Story of the S&L Mess, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Pizzo, Stephen, Inside Job: The Looting of America's Savings and Loans, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.

Seidman, William, Full Faith and Credit: The Great S&L Debacle and other Washington Sagas, New York: Times Books, 1993.

Sprague, Irvine H., Bailout: An Insider's Account of Bank Failures and Rescues, New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Waldman, Michael, Who robbed America? A Citizen's Guide to the S&L Scandal, New York: Random House, 1990.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov





Causes of the S&L Crisis: Bibliography



Barth, James R., The Great Savings and Loan Debacle, Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1991.

Benston, George J., An Analysis of the Causes of Savings and Loan Failures, Monograph Series in Finance and Economics No. 1985-4/5, New York: Salomon Brothers Center for the Study of Financial Institutions, 1985.

Bird, Anat, Can S&Ls Survive?: The Emerging Recovery, Restructuring & Repositioning of America's S&Ls, Chicago: Probus Publishing Co., 1993.

Brumbaugh, R. Dan Jr., The Collapse of Federally Insured Depositories: The Savings and Loans as Precusor, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1993.

Economic Effects of the Savings and Loan Crisis: A CBO Study, Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, 1992.

Ely, Bert and Vicki Vanderhoff, Lessons Learned from the S&L Debacle: The Price of Failed Public Policy, Lewisville, TX: Institute for Policy Innovation, 1991.

Kane, Edward J., Measuring the True Profile of Taxpayer Losses in the S&L Insurance Mess, College of Business Working Paper Series No. 92-53, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, 1992.

Kanes, Edward J., The S&L Insurance Mess: How did it Happen?, Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 1989.

Kaufman, George G., The Savings and Loan Rescue of 1989: Causes and Perspective, Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Issues No. WP-89-23, Chicago: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1989.

Origins and Causes of the S&L Debacle: A Blueprint for Reform: A Report to the President and Congress of the United States, Washington, DC: National Commission on Financial Institution Reform, Recovery and Enforcement, 1993.

Resolving the Thrift Crisis: A CBO Study, Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, 1993.

The Savings and Loan Industry: Genesis to Exodus, New York: Bear Stearns and Co., 1989.

Schumer, Charles E., Catastrophe in the Thrift Industry: An Analysis of its Causes and a Reassessment of its Scope: A Study by the Office of U.S. Congressman Charles E. Schumer, Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1988.

Strunk, Norman and Fred Case, Where Deregulation Went Wrong: A Look at the Causes Behind Savings and Loan Failures in the 1980's, Chicago: United States League of Savings Institutions, 1988.

White, Lawrence J., The S&L Debacle: Public Policy Lessons for Bank and Thrift Regulation, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov




Charles Keating and Lincoln Savings and Loan

Adams, James R., The Big Fix: Inside the S&L Scandal: How an Unholy Alliance of Politics and Money Destroyed America's Banking System, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.

Binstein, Michael and Charles Bowden, Trust Me: Charles Keating and the Missing Billions, New York: Random House, 1993.

Calavita, Kitty, Pontell, Henry N., and Tillman, Robert H. Big Money Game: Fraud and Politics in the Savings and Loan Crisis, Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1997.

Day, Kathleen, S&L Hell: The People and the Politics Behind the $1 Trillion Savings and Loan Scandal, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1993.

Mayer, Martin, The Greatest-Ever Bank Robbery: The Collapse of the Savings and Loan Industry, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.

Pizzo, Stephen, Fricker, Mary and Paul Muolo, Inside Job: The Looting of America's Savings and Loans, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1989.

Preliminary Inquiry Into Allegations Regarding Senators Cranston, DeConcini, Glenn, McCain, and Riegle and Lincoln Savings and Loan, hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Ethics, 101st Cong., 2nd Sess., Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov





Criminal Activity Associated with S&L Failures

Black, William, The Incidence and Cost of Fraud and Insider Abuse, Washington, DC: National Commission on Financial Institution Reform, Recovery and Enforcement, Staff Report No. 13, 1993.

Calavita, Kitty, Pontell, Henry N., and Tillman, Robert H. Big Money Game: Fraud and Politics in the Savings and Loan Crisis, Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1997.

Ettleson, Sherry and Thomas Hilliard, Crime and Punishment in the S&L Industry: The Bush Administration's Anemic War on S&L Fraud, Washington, DC: Public Citizen's Congress Watch, 1990.

Failed Thrifts: Internal Control Weaknesses Create an Environment Conducive to Fraud, Insider Abuse, and Related Unsafe Practices, Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1989. T-AFMD-90-4.

Gup, Benton, Bank Fraud: Exposing the Hidden Threat to Financial Institutions, Rolling Meadows, IL: Bankers Publishing Co., 1990.

Mayer, Martin, The Greatest-Ever Bank Robbery: The Collapse of the Savings and Loan Industry, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.

O'Shea, James, The Daisy Chain: How Borrowed Billions Sank a Texas S&L, New York: Pocket Books, 1991.

Pilzer, Paul Z. and Robert Deitz, Other People's Money: The Inside Story of the S&L Mess, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Pizzo, Stephen, Fricker, Mary and Paul Muolo, Inside Job: The Looting of America's Savings and Loans, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1989.

The U.S Government's War Against Fraud, Abuse, and Misconduct in Financial Institutions: Winning Some Battles but Losing the War: Twenty-Ninth Report, Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives. Committee on Government Operations, Committee Report 101-982, 1990.

Whiteford, Taylor & Preston, Issues Regarding the Role of Fraud and Other Criminal Misconduct in Causing Failures in the Thrift Industry, Washington, DC: National Commission on Financial Institution Reform, Recovery and Enforcement, Staff Report No. 14, 1993.

Why S&L Crooks Have Failed to Pay Millions of Dollars in Court-Ordered Restitution: Nineteen Case Studies, Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives. Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, Committee Print 102-11, 1992.

"William Black Tackles the Savings and Loan Debacle," in Unsung Heroes: Federal Execucrats Making a Difference, pp. 22-63 by Norma M. Riccucci, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 1995.

Wilmsen, Steven K., Silverado: Neil Bush and the Savings and Loan Scandal, Washington, DC: National Press Books, 1991.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov




Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980

Cargill, Thomas F. and Gillian G. Garcia, Financial Deregulation and Monetary Control: Historical Perspective and Impact of the 1980 Act, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1982.

Colton, Kent W., Financial Reform: A Review of the Past and Prospects for the Future, Invited Research Working Paper No. 37, Washington, DC: Federal Home Loan Bank Board, 1980.

Cooper, Kerry and Donald R. Fraser, Banking Deregulation and the New Competition in Financial Service, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1984.

Petersen, Neal L., "The Depository Institutions Deregulation Act (Title II of P.L. 96-221) and Actions of the Depository Institutions Deregulation Committee in Implementing the Act", in: Bank Expansions in the 1980s, pp. 650-665, New York: Law & Business, Inc., 1982.

Riordan, Dale P. and Jerry Hartzog, "The Impact of the Deregulation Act on Policy Choices of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board", in: Savings and Loan Asset Management under Deregulation,pp. 33-58, San Francisco: Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco, 1981.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov




Deregulation of the S&Ls

Balderston, Frederick E., Thrifts in Crisis: Structural Transformation of the Savings and Loan Industry, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1985.

Barth, James R. and Michael R. Bradley, Thrift Deregulation and Federal Deposit Insurance , Working Paper No. 150, Washington, DC: Federal Home Loan Bank Board, 1988.

Brewer, Elijah, and Thomas H. Mondschean, The Empirical Test of the Incentive Effects of Deposit Insurance: the Case of Junk Bonds at Savings and Loan Associations, Working Paper Series Issues in Financial Regulation, Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1991.

Carron, Andrew S., The Plight of the Thrift Institutions, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1982.

Gray, Jonathan E, Financial Deregulation and the Savings and Loan Crisis, New York: S.C. Bernstein & Co., Inc., 1988.

Kaufman, George C. and Roger C. Kormendi, eds., Deregulating Financial Services, Public Policy in Flux, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1986.

Rubinovitz, Robert, Moral Hazard in the Thrift Industry, Economic Analysis Group Discussion Paper No. 90-1, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Antitrust Division, 1990.

Strunk, Norman and Fred Case, Where Deregulation Went Wrong: A Look at the Causes behind the Savings and Loan Failures in the 1980s, Chicago: U.S. League of Savings Institutions, 1988.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov




Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA)

An Executive's Guide to FIRREA, New York: Price Water House and Co., 1989.

Banks and Thrifts: Introduction to FDIC/RTC Receivership Law, Commercial Law and Practice Course Handbook Series No. 616, New York: Practising Law Institute, 1992.

Barth, James R. and Philip R. West, Consolidation and Restructuring of the U.S. Thrift Industry Under the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act, Research Paper No. 89-01, Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Thrift Supervision, 1989.

Dunaway, Baxter and Deon Dunaway, FIRREA: Law and Practice, New York: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 1992.

Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery & Enforcement Act of 1989, Chicago, IL: United States League of Savings Institutions, 1989. 9 volumes.

Kaufman, George G., The Savings and Loan Rescue of 1989: Causes and Perspective, Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Issues No. WP-89-23, Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1989.

Legislative History, Washington, DC: FDIC Library, 1990. 16 volumes.

Modernizing the Financial System: Recommendations for Safer, More Competitive Banks, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Treasury, 1991.

Pulles, Gregory, Whitlock, Robert and James Hogg, FIRREA: A Legislative History and Section - by - Section Analysis of the Financial Institutions Recovery, Reform and Enforcement Act, Colorado Spring, CO: Shepard's'McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991.

Shaw, Karen D., Sivon, James C. and Mary Johannes, FIRREA: Implementation and Compliance , Boston: Warren, Gorham & Lamont, Inc., 1991.

Slattery, Michael K., FIRREA: Receivership and Conservatorship Law, New York: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 1992.

The Thrift Industry Restructured: The New Regulators and Opportunities for the Future, Commercial Law and Practice Course Handbook Series No. 508, New York: Practising Law Institute, 1989.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov




Garn - St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982

Cooper, Kerry and Donald R. Fraser, Banking Deregulation and the New Competition in Financial Service, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co, 1984.

Depository Institutions Act of 1982, Corporate Law and Practice Course Handbook Series No. 406, New York: Practicing Law Institute, 1983.

Garn - St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982, Legislative History.

New Directions for the Thrift Industry, Commercial Law and Practice Course Handbook Series No. 310, New York: Practicing Law Institute, 1983.

Pafenberg, Forrest W., Flick, Frederick E. and Cynthia A. Hill, Risk and Regulated Depository Institutions, Research Paper No. 87-2, Washington DC: National Assocation of Realtors, 1987.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 12/20/2002 library@fdic.gov




Interest Rate Vulnerability



Black, William, Examples of S&Ls Engaging in Substantial Interest Rate Gambles After 1983, Staff Report No. 5, Washington, DC: National Commission of Financial Institution Reform, Recovery and Enforcement, 1993.

Brewer, Elijah, III, The Impact of Deregulation on the True Cost of Savings Deposits: Evidence from Illinois and Wisconsin Savings and Loan Associations, Staff Memoranda 85-4. Chicago: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, August, 1985.

Dann, Larry Y and Christopher M. James, An Analysis of the Impact of Deposit Rate Ceilings on the Market Values of Stock Savings and Loan Associations, Staff Papers 1981-4. Washington, DC: Comptroller of the Currency, 1981.

Hess, Alan C., Effects of Regulation Q on Deposits and Interest Rates at Savings Associations, RWP 83-04. Kansas City, MO: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, March, 1983.

Shoven, John B., Smart, Scott B. and Joel Waldfogel, Real Interest Rates and the Savings and Loan Crisis: the Moral Hazard Premium, Working Paper No. 3754, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov




Southwest Plan

Barth, James R., Bartholomew, Philip F. and Carol J. Labich, Moral Hazard and the Thrift Crisis: an Analysis of 1988 Resolutions, Research Paper, Washington, DC: Federal Home Loan Bank Board, 1989.

Black, William, The Southwest Plan and the 1988 "Resolutions", Washington, DC: National Commission on Financial Institution Reform, Recovery and Enforcement, 1993.

Failed Thrifts: Bank Board's 1988 Texas Resolutions, Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1989. GGD-89-59.

Failed Thrifts: FDIC Oversight of 1988 Deals Needs Improvement, Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1990. GGD/90/93.

Failed Thrifts: GAO's Analysis of Bank Board's 1988 Deals, Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1989. T-GGD-89-11.

Federal Home Loan Bank Board 1988 Deals, hearing before the House Committee on Banking Housing and Urban Affairs, 101st Cong., 2nd Sess., 1990.

Haregot, Seyoum A., et al., Let's Make a Deal: an Analysis of the 1988 Savings and Loan Bailouts and the Federal Campaign Contributions of Associated Individuals and Political Action Committees, Washington, DC: Center for Study of Responsive Law, 1991.

Kormendi, Roger C., Crisis Resolution in the Thrift Industry: a Mid America Institute Report, Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Press, 1989.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov




State Deposit Insurance Funds - Ohio and Maryland

Kane, Edward J., How Incentive-Incompatible Deposit Insurance Funds Fail, Prochnow Report No. PR-014, Madison, WS: Prochnow Educational Foundation, 1989.

Kane, Edward J., "Who Should Learn What From the Failure and Delayed Bailout of the ODGB?", in: Merging Commercial and Investment Banking, pp. 306-326, Chicago: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1988.

Maggin, Donald L., Bankers, Builders, Knaves, and Thieves: The $300 Million Scam at ESM, Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 1989.

McCulloch, J. Huston, "The Ohio S&L Crisis in Retrospect: Implications for the Current Federal Deposit Insurance Crisis," in: Merging Commercial and Investment Banking. Proceedings of a Conference on Bank Structure and Competition, pp. 230-251, Chicago: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1987.

Pressman, Steven, Behind the S&L Crisis, Editorial Research Reports, Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, November 4, 1988.

Todd, Walker F., Similarities and Dissimilarities in the Collapses of Three State-Chartered Private Deposit Insurance Funds., Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Working Paper. No. 9411. October, 1994.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 12/13/2000 library@fdic.gov





Taxation and Accounting

Biederman, Kenneth R. and John A. Tuccillo, Taxation and Regulation of the Savings and Loan Industry, Lexington, MLA: Heath Co., 1976.

Ely, Bert, The Role of Accounting in the S&L Crisis, Washington, DC: National Commission on Financial Institution Reform, Recovery and Enforcement, 1993.

Failure of Independent CPAs to Identify Fraud, Waste, and Mismanagment and Assure Accurate Financial Position of Troubled S&Ls, hearing before the House Committe on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, 101st Cong., 1st Sess., 1989.

Finegan, Patrick G., Master Financial Statements: Who Murdered Savings and Loans, Washington, DC: Palindrome Press, 1991.

Goodman, Rae Jean B., An Assessment of Recent Changes and Proposals in S&L Taxation, Invited Research Working Paper No. 43, Washington, DC: Federal Home Loan Bank Board, 1983.

Goodman, Rae Jean B., Savings and Loan Association Taxation: History, Issues and Alternatives, Invited Research Working Paper No. 32, Washington, DC: Federal Home Loan Bank Board, 1980.

Kuhn, Gerald J., A Summarization of RAP and GAAP for FSLIC-Insured Thrift Instititutions, Chicago: Financial Managers Society, Inc., 1983.

The Need to Improve Auditing in the Savings and Loan Industry, Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1989. T-AFMD/89/4.

Robbins, Aldona and Gary Robbins, How Tax Policy Compounded the S&L Crisis, Lewisville, TX: Institute for Policy Innovation, 1991.

Return to Chronology
Last Updated 6/6/99 library@fdic.gov



FDIC Office of Inspector General