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13 March 2008. Updated.

2007 member information from hardcopy of the 2007 Judicial Staff Directory (Summer), Congressional Quarterly Press, p. 8. The 2007 directory is available by subscription from the Congressional Quarterly Press: http://jsd.cqpress.com/scripts/index.cfm

20 January 2006. Add biographical material on the judges and description of the FISC.

Member information from hardcopy of the 2005 Judicial Staff Directory, Congressional Quarterly, pp. 7-8. The 2006 directory is available for $260 from the Congressional Quarterly: http://www.cqpress.com/product/Judicial-Staff-Directory-2006-Winter.html

19 January 2006

Related: http://www.cryptome.org/fisa-biblio.htm

Corrections and updates welcome; send to jya[at]cryptome.net

Biographical information from the Federal Judicial Center: http://www.fjc.gov/public/home.nsf/hisj

http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/autoframe?openform&nav=/history/home.nsf/page/courts_nav&page=/history/home.nsf/page/fisc_bdy

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court

Congress in 1978 established the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court as a special court and authorized the Chief Justice of the United States to designate seven federal district court judges to review applications for warrants related to national security investigations. Judges serve for staggered, non-renewable terms of no more than seven years, and must be from different judicial circuits. The provisions for the court were part of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (92 Stat. 1783), which required the government, before it commenced certain kinds of intelligence gathering operations within the United States, to obtain a judicial warrant similar to that required in criminal investigations. The legislation was a response to a report of the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (the “Church Committee”), which detailed allegations of executive branch abuses of its authority to conduct domestic electronic surveillance in the interest of national security. Congress also was responding to the Supreme Court’s suggestion in a 1972 case that under the Fourth Amendment some kind of judicial warrant might be required to conduct national security related investigations.

Warrant applications under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act are drafted by attorneys in the General Counsel’s Office at the National Security Agency at the request of an officer of one of the federal intelligence agencies. Each application must contain the Attorney General’s certification that the target of the proposed surveillance is either a “foreign power” or “the agent of a foreign power” and, in the case of a U.S. citizen or resident alien, that the target may be involved in the commission of a crime.

The judges of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court travel to Washington, D.C., to hear warrant applications on a rotating basis. To ensure that the court can convene on short notice, at least one of the judges is required to be a member of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. The act of 1978 also established a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review, presided over by three district or appeals court judges designated by the Chief Justice, to review, at the government’s request, the decisions the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Because of the almost perfect record of the Department of Justice in obtaining the surveillance warrants and other powers it requested from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, the review court had no occasion to meet until 2002. The USA Patriot Act of 2001 (115 Stat. 272) expanded the time periods for which the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court can authorize surveillance and increased the number of judges serving the court from seven to eleven.


Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court Members in 2007

Address of the Court:
Department of Justice, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W, Washington, DC 20530

Member Title Term
Expires
Address Telephone
Colleen Kollar-Kotelly

Born 1943 in New York, NY

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia

Nominated by William J. Clinton on January 7, 1997, to a seat vacated by Harold H. Greene; Confirmed by the Senate on March 20, 1997, and received commission on March 26, 1997.

Education:

Catholic University of America, B.A., 1965

Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law, J.D., 1968

Professional Career:

Law clerk, Hon. Catherine Kelly, District of Columbia Court of Appeals, 1968-1969

Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, Appellate Section, 1969-1972

Chief legal counsel, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, St. Elizabeth's Hospital, 1972-1984

Associate judge, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, 1984-1997

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Female

Presiding Judge 5-18-09 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 4323
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3340
Dee Vance Benson

Born 1948 in Sandy, UT

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Utah

Nominated by George H.W. Bush on May 16, 1991, to a new seat created by 104 Stat. 5089; Confirmed by the Senate on September 12, 1991, and received commission on September 16, 1991. Served as chief judge, 1999-present.

Education:

Brigham Young University, B.A., 1973

Brigham Young University, J. Reuben Clark Law School, J.D., 1976

Professional Career:

Private practice, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1976-1984

Counsel, U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, 1984-1986

Chief of staff, U.S. Sen. Orrin Hatch, 1986-1988

Counsel, Iran-Contra Congressional Investigating Committee, 1987

Associate deputy U.S. attorney general, 1988-1989

U.S. Attorney for the District of Utah, 1989-1991

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-11-11 Frank E. Moss U.S. Courthouse
350 S. Main Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
801-524-6160
Robert C. Broomfield

Born 1933 in Detroit, MI

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Arizona

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on May 15, 1985, to a seat vacated by Valdemar A. Cordova; Confirmed by the Senate on July 10, 1985, and received commission on July 11, 1985. Served as chief judge, 1994-1999. Assumed senior status on August 12, 1999.

Education:

Pennsylvania State University, B.S., 1955

University of Arizona, LL.B., 1961

Professional Career:

U.S. Air Force Lieutenant, 1955-1958

U.S. Air Force Reserve Captain, 1961-1972

Clerk-Bailiff for Superior Court Judge Jack D. H. Hays, Arizona, 1961-1962

Private practice, Phoenix, Arizona, 1962-1970

Judge, Superior Court of Arizona, 1971-1985

Presiding judge, Juvenile Division of the Superior Court, Arizona, 1972-1974

Presiding judge, Superior Court of Arizona, 1974-1985

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-09 Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse
401 West Washington Street
Room 626
Phoenix, AZ 85003
602-322-7540
Malcolm J. Howard

Born 1939 in Kinston, NC

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Eastern District of North Carolina

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on September 10, 1987, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333; Confirmed by the Senate on February 25, 1988, and received commission on February 26, 1988. Assumed senior status on December 31, 2005.

Education:

U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York, B.S., 1962

Wake Forest University School of Law, J.D., 1970

Professional Career:

U.S. Army Major, 1962-1972

Legislative counsel, U.S. Secretary of the Army, 1971-1972

General counsel and marketing manager, Dixon Marketing, Inc., Kinston, North Carolina, 1972

Assistant U.S. attorney, Eastern District of North Carolina, 1973-1974

Deputy special counsel, Executive Office of the President of the United States, 1974

Private practice, Greenville, North Carolina, 1975-1988

Civilian aide, U.S. Secretary of the Army for North Carolina, 1986-1988

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-10 US Courthouse
201 South Evans Street
Greenville, NC 27858
252-830-4976
Michael J. Davis

Born 1947 in Cincinnati, OH

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Minnesota

Nominated by William J. Clinton on November 19, 1993, to a seat vacated by Harry H. MacLaughlin; Confirmed by the Senate on March 25, 1994, and received commission on March 28, 1994.

Education:

Macalester College, B.A., 1969

University of Minnesota Law School, J.D., 1972

Professional Career:

Law clerk, Legal Rights Center, 1971-1973

Attorney, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Social Security Administration, Office of Legal Counsel, Baltimore, Maryland, 1973

Criminal defense lawyer, Neighborhood Justice Center, Incorporated, 1974

Attorney, Legal Rights Center, 1975-1978

Instructor, William Mitchell School of Law, 1977-1981

Attorney and commissioner, Minneapolis Civil Rights Commission, Minnesota 1977-1981

Attorney, Hennepin County, Minnesota Public Defender's Office, 1978-1983

Adjunct professor, University of Minnesota Law School, 1982-

Judge, Municipal Court, Hennepin County, Minnesota, 1983-1984

Judge, Hennepin County, Minnesota District Court, Fourth Judicial District, 1984-1994

Instructor, Minnesota Institute of Legal Education, 1990-

Race or Ethnicity: African American

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-06 300 S. Fourth Street
Room 14E
Minneapolis, MN 55402
612-664-5070
John D. Bates (Replaced James Robertson)

Judge Bates was appointed United States District Judge in December 2001.

He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1968 and received a J.D. from the University of Maryland School of Law in 1976.

From 1968 to 1971, he served in the United States Army, including a tour in Vietnam.

Judge Bates clerked for Judge Roszel C. Thomsen of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland from 1976 to 1977 and was an associate at Steptoe & Johnson from 1977 to 1980.

He served as an Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Columbia from 1980 to 1997, and was Chief of the Civil Division of the U.S. Attorney's Office from 1987 to 1997.

Judge Bates was on detail as Deputy Independent Counsel for the Whitewater investigation from 1995 to mid-1997.

In 1998, he joined the Washington law firm of Miller & Chevalier, where he was Chair of the Government Contracts/Litigation Department and a member of the Executive Committee.

Judge Bates has served on the Advisory Committee for Procedures of the D.C. Circuit and on the Civil Justice Reform Committee for the District Court, and as Treasurer of the D.C. Bar, Chairman of the Publications Committee of the D.C. Bar, and Chairman of the Litigation Section of the Federal Bar Association.

He was a member of the Board of Directors of the Washington Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights and Urban Affairs.

In 2005, he was appointed by Chief Justice Rehnquist to serve on the U.S. Judicial Conference Committee on Court Administration and Case Management.

In February 2006, he was appointed by Chief Justice Roberts to serve as a judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.

Judge Term Expires 5-06 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 4329
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3460
James Robertson

Judge James Robertson, submitted his letter of resignation to Chief Justice John G. Robert on December 19, 2005, regarding his position of Judge on the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Judge Robertson is one of eleven judges currently serving on the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.

Judge 5-06 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 6315
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3460
George P. Kazen

Born 1940 in Laredo, TX

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Southern District of Texas

Nominated by Jimmy Carter on March 7, 1979, to a new seat created by 92 Stat. 1629; Confirmed by the Senate on May 10, 1979, and received commission on May 11, 1979. Served as chief judge, 1996-2003.

Education:

University of Texas, B.B.A., 1960

University of Texas School of Law, J.D., 1961

Professional Career:

Briefing attorney, Texas Supreme Court, 1961-1962

U.S. Air Force Captain, JAG Corps, 1962-1965

Private practice, Laredo, Texas, 1965-1979

Adjunct professor of law, St. Mary's University Law School, 1990-present

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-10 Federal Building
1300 Matamoros Street
Room 311
Laredo, TX 78042
956-726-2237
Claude M. Hilton

Born 1940 in Scott County, VA

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Eastern District of Virginia

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on May 15, 1985, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333; Confirmed by the Senate on July 10, 1985, and received commission on July 11, 1985. Served as chief judge, 1997-2004. Assumed senior status on December 31, 2005.

Education:

Ohio State University, B.S., 1963

American University, Washington College of Law, J.D., 1966

Professional Career:

Assistant commonwealth's attorney, Arlington, Virginia, 1967-1968

Private practice, Arlington, Virginia, 1968-1973

Commonwealth's attorney, Virginia, 1974-1975

Private practice, Arlington, Virginia, 1976-1985

Commissioner in chancery, Circuit Court of Arlington County, Virginia, 1976-1985

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-07 Albert V. Bryan U.S. Courthouse
401 Courthouse Square
Alexandria, VA 22314-5798
703-299-2112
James G. Carr

Born 1940 in Boston, MA

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Northern District of Ohio

Nominated by William J. Clinton on January 27, 1994, to a seat vacated by Richard B. McQuade, Jr.; Confirmed by the Senate on May 6, 1994, and received commission on May 9, 1994. Served as chief judge, 2004-present.

Education:

Kenyon College, B.A., 1966

Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1969

Professional Career:

Private practice, Chicago, Illinois, 1966-1968

Staff attorney, Cook County Legal Assistance Foundation, Illinois, 1968-1970

Adjunct professor, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1969

Adjunct professor, Loyola University, Chicago, School of Law, 1970

Associate professor, University of Toledo College of Law, 1970-1979

Assistant prosecutor, Lucas County Prosecutor's Office, Ohio, 1972-1973

U.S. Magistrate, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, 1979-1994

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-8-08 U.S. Courthouse
1716 Spielbusch Avenue
Room 203
Toledo, OH 43624
419-259-6420
Nathaniel M. Gorton

Born 1938 in Evanston, IL

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Massachusetts

Nominated by George H.W. Bush on April 28, 1992, to a new seat created by 104 Stat. 5089; Confirmed by the Senate on September 23, 1992, and received commission on September 24, 1992.

Education:

Dartmouth College, A.B., 1960

Columbia Law School, LL.B., 1966

Professional Career:

U.S. Navy, 1960-1962

Private practice, Boston, Massachusetts, 1966-1992

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-08 Harold D. Donohue Federal Building
595 Main Street
Room 411
Worcester, MA 01608
508-793-0587
Alternate Chambers
John Joseph Moakley U.S. Courthouse
One Courthouse Way
Room 5120
Boston, MA 02210
617-748-9248
Frederick J. Scullin Judge 5-18-12 James M. Hanley Federal Building, 100 S. Clinton Street, Syracuse, NY 13261. Mail to: P.O. Box 7255, Syracuse NY 13261-7255 312-234-8560
Patti Aronson Legal Counsel

-

Justice 202-514-1204
Philip Golrick Legal Counsel

-

Justice 202-514-1204

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Members in 2007

Address of the Court:
Department of Justice, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W, Washington, DC 20530

Member Title Address Telephone
Edward Leavy

Born 1929, near Aurora, OR

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Oregon

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on March 26, 1984, to a seat vacated by Robert C. Belloni; Confirmed by the Senate on April 24, 1984, and received commission on May 3, 1984. Service terminated on April 8, 1987, due to appointment to another judicial position.

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on February 2, 1987, to a seat vacated by Otto Richard Skopil, Jr.; Confirmed by the Senate on March 20, 1987, and received commission on March 23, 1987. Assumed senior status on May 19, 1997.

Education:

University of Portland, A.B., 1950

Notre Dame Law School, LL.B., 1953

Professional Career:

Private practice, Eugene, Oregon, 1953-1954

Deputy district attorney, Lane County, Oregon, 1954-1957

Judge, District Court of Lane County, Oregon, 1957-1961

Judge, Circuit Court of Lane County, Oregon, 1961-1976

Justice pro tempore, Oregon Supreme Court, 1974

U.S. Magistrate, U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon, 1976-1984

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Senior Judge U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit
Pioneer Courthouse
555 S.W. Yamhill Street
Room 232
Portland, OR 97204-1396
503-326-5665
Bruce M. Selya

Born 1934 in Providence, RI

Federal Judicial Service:

Judge, U. S. District Court, District of Rhode Island

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on July 27, 1982, to a seat vacated by Raymond J. Pettine; Confirmed by the Senate on August 18, 1982, and received commission on August 18, 1982. Service terminated on November 24, 1986, due to appointment to another judicial position.

Judge, U. S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on September 26, 1986, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333; Confirmed by the Senate on October 8, 1986, and received commission on October 14, 1986. Assumed senior status on December 31, 2006.

Education:

Harvard University, A.B., 1955

Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1958

Professional Career:

Law clerk, Hon. Edward W. Day, Chief Judge, U.S. District Court, District of Rhode Island, 1958-1960

Private practice, Providence, Rhode Island, 1960-1982

Judge of probate, Lincoln, Rhode Island, 1965-1972

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Senior Circuit Judge U.S. Court of Appeal for the First Circuit.
U.S. Court House and Federal Building, One Exchange Terrace, Providence, RI 02903
401-752-7140
Ralph K. Winter Jr.

Born 1935 in Waterbury, CT

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on November 18, 1981, to a seat vacated by Walter Roe Mansfield; Confirmed by the Senate on December 9, 1981, and received commission on December 10, 1981. Served as chief judge, 1997-2000. Assumed senior status on September 30, 2000.

Education:

Yale University, B.A., 1957

Yale Law School, LL.B., 1960

Professional Career:

Law clerk, Hon. Caleb M. Wright, Chief Judge, U.S. District Court, District of Delaware, 1960-1961

Law clerk, Hon. Thurgood Marshall, U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, 1961-1962

Faculty, Yale Law School, 1962-1982

Research associate and lecturer, 1962-1964

Assistant / associate professor, 1964-1968

Professor of law, 1968-1982

Consultant, Subcommittee on Separation of Powers, U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, 1968-1972

Senior fellow, Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C., 1968-1970

Guggenheim fellow, Washington, D.C., 1971-1972

Adjutant scholar, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C., 1972-1981

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

U.S. Circuit Judge U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
Richard C. Lee U.S. Courthouse
141 Church Street
Room 3400
New Haven, CT 06510
203-782-3682
Patti Aronsson Legal Adviser Justice 202-514-1204


In 2005 Dee Benson replaced Stanley S. Brotman and Malcolm J. Howard replaced Harold A. Baker. James Robertson resigned in December 2005 to protest NSA surveillance without FISC approval; his replacement was John Bates (see 2007 list).

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court Members in 2005

Address of the Court:
Department of Justice, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W, Washington, DC 20530

Member Title Term
Expires
Address Telephone
Colleen Kollar-Kotelly

Born 1943 in New York, NY

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia

Nominated by William J. Clinton on January 7, 1997, to a seat vacated by Harold H. Greene; Confirmed by the Senate on March 20, 1997, and received commission on March 26, 1997.

Education:

Catholic University of America, B.A., 1965

Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law, J.D., 1968

Professional Career:

Law clerk, Hon. Catherine Kelly, District of Columbia Court of Appeals, 1968-1969

Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, Appellate Section, 1969-1972

Chief legal counsel, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, St. Elizabeth's Hospital, 1972-1984

Associate judge, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, 1984-1997

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Female

Presiding Judge 5-18-09 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 4323
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3340
Robert C. Broomfield

Born 1933 in Detroit, MI

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Arizona

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on May 15, 1985, to a seat vacated by Valdemar A. Cordova; Confirmed by the Senate on July 10, 1985, and received commission on July 11, 1985. Served as chief judge, 1994-1999. Assumed senior status on August 12, 1999.

Education:

Pennsylvania State University, B.S., 1955

University of Arizona, LL.B., 1961

Professional Career:

U.S. Air Force Lieutenant, 1955-1958

U.S. Air Force Reserve Captain, 1961-1972

Clerk-Bailiff for Superior Court Judge Jack D. H. Hays, Arizona, 1961-1962

Private practice, Phoenix, Arizona, 1962-1970

Judge, Superior Court of Arizona, 1971-1985

Presiding judge, Juvenile Division of the Superior Court, Arizona, 1972-1974

Presiding judge, Superior Court of Arizona, 1974-1985

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-09 Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse
401 West Washington Street
Room 626
Phoenix, AZ 85003
602-322-7540
Dee Vance Benson

Born 1948 in Sandy, UT

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Utah

Nominated by George H.W. Bush on May 16, 1991, to a new seat created by 104 Stat. 5089; Confirmed by the Senate on September 12, 1991, and received commission on September 16, 1991. Served as chief judge, 1999-present.

Education:

Brigham Young University, B.A., 1973

Brigham Young University, J. Reuben Clark Law School, J.D., 1976

Professional Career:

Private practice, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1976-1984

Counsel, U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, 1984-1986

Chief of staff, U.S. Sen. Orrin Hatch, 1986-1988

Counsel, Iran-Contra Congressional Investigating Committee, 1987

Associate deputy U.S. attorney general, 1988-1989

U.S. Attorney for the District of Utah, 1989-1991

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-11-11 Frank E. Moss U.S. Courthouse
350 S. Main Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
801-524-6160
Harold A. Baker (Replaced by Malcom Howard in April 2005)

Born 1929 in Mt. Kisco, NY

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Eastern District of Illinois

Nominated by Jimmy Carter on August 9, 1978, to a seat vacated by Henry S. Wise; Confirmed by the Senate on September 22, 1978, and received commission on September 23, 1978. Service terminated on March 31, 1979, due to assignment to another court.

U. S. District Court, Central District of Illinois

Reassigned March 31, 1979; Served as chief judge, 1984-1991. Assumed senior status on October 4, 1994.

Education:

Columbia University

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, A.B., 1951

University of Illinois College of Law, J.D., 1956

Professional Career:

U.S. Navy Lieutenant, 1951-1953

Private practice, Champaign, Illinois, 1956-1978

Adjunct faculty member, University of Illinois College of Law, 1972-1978

Senior counsel, President's Commission on CIA Activities in the United States, Washington, DC, 1975

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-05 U.S. Courthouse
201 S. Vine Street
Room 338
Urbana, IL 61801
217-373-5835
Malcolm J. Howard (Replaced Harold Baker in April 2005)

Born 1939 in Kinston, NC

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Eastern District of North Carolina

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on September 10, 1987, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333; Confirmed by the Senate on February 25, 1988, and received commission on February 26, 1988. Assumed senior status on December 31, 2005.

Education:

U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York, B.S., 1962

Wake Forest University School of Law, J.D., 1970

Professional Career:

U.S. Army Major, 1962-1972

Legislative counsel, U.S. Secretary of the Army, 1971-1972

General counsel and marketing manager, Dixon Marketing, Inc., Kinston, North Carolina, 1972

Assistant U.S. attorney, Eastern District of North Carolina, 1973-1974

Deputy special counsel, Executive Office of the President of the United States, 1974

Private practice, Greenville, North Carolina, 1975-1988

Civilian aide, U.S. Secretary of the Army for North Carolina, 1986-1988

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-10 US Courthouse
201 South Evans Street
Greenville, NC 27858
252-830-4976
Michael J. Davis

Born 1947 in Cincinnati, OH

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Minnesota

Nominated by William J. Clinton on November 19, 1993, to a seat vacated by Harry H. MacLaughlin; Confirmed by the Senate on March 25, 1994, and received commission on March 28, 1994.

Education:

Macalester College, B.A., 1969

University of Minnesota Law School, J.D., 1972

Professional Career:

Law clerk, Legal Rights Center, 1971-1973

Attorney, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Social Security Administration, Office of Legal Counsel, Baltimore, Maryland, 1973

Criminal defense lawyer, Neighborhood Justice Center, Incorporated, 1974

Attorney, Legal Rights Center, 1975-1978

Instructor, William Mitchell School of Law, 1977-1981

Attorney and commissioner, Minneapolis Civil Rights Commission, Minnesota 1977-1981

Attorney, Hennepin County, Minnesota Public Defender's Office, 1978-1983

Adjunct professor, University of Minnesota Law School, 1982-

Judge, Municipal Court, Hennepin County, Minnesota, 1983-1984

Judge, Hennepin County, Minnesota District Court, Fourth Judicial District, 1984-1994

Instructor, Minnesota Institute of Legal Education, 1990-

Race or Ethnicity: African American

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-06 300 S. Fourth Street
Room 14E
Minneapolis, MN 55402
612-664-5070
James Robertson (Resigned December 2005)

Born 1938 in Cleveland, OH

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia

Nominated by William J. Clinton on September 14, 1994, to a seat vacated by George H. Revercomb; Confirmed by the Senate on October 7, 1994, and received commission on October 11, 1994.

Education:

Princeton University, B.A., 1959

George Washington University Law School, LL.B., 1965

Professional Career:

United States Navy Lieutenant, 1959-1964

Private practice, Washington, DC, 1965-1969

Chief counsel, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Jackson, Mississippi, 1969-1970

National director, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Washington, DC, 1970-1972

Private practice, Washington, DC, 1972-1994

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-06 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 6315
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3460
George P. Kazen

Born 1940 in Laredo, TX

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Southern District of Texas

Nominated by Jimmy Carter on March 7, 1979, to a new seat created by 92 Stat. 1629; Confirmed by the Senate on May 10, 1979, and received commission on May 11, 1979. Served as chief judge, 1996-2003.

Education:

University of Texas, B.B.A., 1960

University of Texas School of Law, J.D., 1961

Professional Career:

Briefing attorney, Texas Supreme Court, 1961-1962

U.S. Air Force Captain, JAG Corps, 1962-1965

Private practice, Laredo, Texas, 1965-1979

Adjunct professor of law, St. Mary's University Law School, 1990-present

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-10 Federal Building
1300 Matamoros Street
Room 311
Laredo, TX 78042
956-726-2237
Claude M. Hilton

Born 1940 in Scott County, VA

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Eastern District of Virginia

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on May 15, 1985, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333; Confirmed by the Senate on July 10, 1985, and received commission on July 11, 1985. Served as chief judge, 1997-2004. Assumed senior status on December 31, 2005.

Education:

Ohio State University, B.S., 1963

American University, Washington College of Law, J.D., 1966

Professional Career:

Assistant commonwealth's attorney, Arlington, Virginia, 1967-1968

Private practice, Arlington, Virginia, 1968-1973

Commonwealth's attorney, Virginia, 1974-1975

Private practice, Arlington, Virginia, 1976-1985

Commissioner in chancery, Circuit Court of Arlington County, Virginia, 1976-1985

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-07 Albert V. Bryan U.S. Courthouse
401 Courthouse Square
Alexandria, VA 22314-5798
703-299-2112
James G. Carr

Born 1940 in Boston, MA

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Northern District of Ohio

Nominated by William J. Clinton on January 27, 1994, to a seat vacated by Richard B. McQuade, Jr.; Confirmed by the Senate on May 6, 1994, and received commission on May 9, 1994. Served as chief judge, 2004-present.

Education:

Kenyon College, B.A., 1966

Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1969

Professional Career:

Private practice, Chicago, Illinois, 1966-1968

Staff attorney, Cook County Legal Assistance Foundation, Illinois, 1968-1970

Adjunct professor, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1969

Adjunct professor, Loyola University, Chicago, School of Law, 1970

Associate professor, University of Toledo College of Law, 1970-1979

Assistant prosecutor, Lucas County Prosecutor's Office, Ohio, 1972-1973

U.S. Magistrate, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, 1979-1994

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-8-08 U.S. Courthouse
1716 Spielbusch Avenue
Room 203
Toledo, OH 43624
419-259-6420
Nathaniel M. Gorton

Born 1938 in Evanston, IL

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Massachusetts

Nominated by George H.W. Bush on April 28, 1992, to a new seat created by 104 Stat. 5089; Confirmed by the Senate on September 23, 1992, and received commission on September 24, 1992.

Education:

Dartmouth College, A.B., 1960

Columbia Law School, LL.B., 1966

Professional Career:

U.S. Navy, 1960-1962

Private practice, Boston, Massachusetts, 1966-1992

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Judge 5-18-08 Harold D. Donohue Federal Building
595 Main Street
Room 411
Worcester, MA 01608
508-793-0587
Alternate Chambers
John Joseph Moakley U.S. Courthouse
One Courthouse Way
Room 5120
Boston, MA 02210
617-748-9248
Patti Aronson Legal Advisor

-

Justice 202-514-1204
Philip Golrick Legal Advisor

-

Justice 202-514-1204

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Members in 2005

Address of the Court:
Department of Justice, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W, Washington, DC 20530

Member Title Address Telephone
Ralph B. Guy Jr.

Born 1929 in Detroit, MI

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, Eastern District of Michigan

Nominated by Gerald Ford on April 26, 1976, to a seat vacated by Frederick William Kaess; Confirmed by the Senate on May 11, 1976, and received commission on May 12, 1976. Service terminated on October 17, 1985, due to appointment to another judicial position.

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on July 23, 1985, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333; Confirmed by the Senate on October 16, 1985, and received commission on October 17, 1985. Assumed senior status on September 1, 1994.

Education:

University of Michigan, A.B., 1951

University of Michigan Law School, J.D., 1953

Professional Career:

Private practice, Dearborn, Michigan, 1954-1955

Assistant corporation counsel, City of Dearborn, Michigan, 1955-1958

Corporation counsel, City of Dearborn, Michigan, 1958-1968

Chief assistant U.S. attorney, Eastern District of Michigan, 1968-1970

U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Michigan, 1970-1976

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Presiding
Senior Judge
U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit
Potter Stewart U.S. Courthouse
100 E. Fifth Street
Room 632
Cincinnati, OH 45202

513-564-7454





Resident Chambers
200 E. Liberty Street
Room 226
P. O. Box 7910
Ann Arbor, MI 48107
734-741-2300
Edward Leavy

Born 1929, near Aurora, OR

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. District Court, District of Oregon

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on March 26, 1984, to a seat vacated by Robert C. Belloni; Confirmed by the Senate on April 24, 1984, and received commission on May 3, 1984. Service terminated on April 8, 1987, due to appointment to another judicial position.

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on February 2, 1987, to a seat vacated by Otto Richard Skopil, Jr.; Confirmed by the Senate on March 20, 1987, and received commission on March 23, 1987. Assumed senior status on May 19, 1997.

Education:

University of Portland, A.B., 1950

Notre Dame Law School, LL.B., 1953

Professional Career:

Private practice, Eugene, Oregon, 1953-1954

Deputy district attorney, Lane County, Oregon, 1954-1957

Judge, District Court of Lane County, Oregon, 1957-1961

Judge, Circuit Court of Lane County, Oregon, 1961-1976

Justice pro tempore, Oregon Supreme Court, 1974

U.S. Magistrate, U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon, 1976-1984

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

Senior Judge U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit
Pioneer Courthouse
555 S.W. Yamhill Street
Room 232
Portland, OR 97204-1396
503-326-5665
Ralph K. Winter Jr.

Born 1935 in Waterbury, CT

Federal Judicial Service:

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

Nominated by Ronald Reagan on November 18, 1981, to a seat vacated by Walter Roe Mansfield; Confirmed by the Senate on December 9, 1981, and received commission on December 10, 1981. Served as chief judge, 1997-2000. Assumed senior status on September 30, 2000.

Education:

Yale University, B.A., 1957

Yale Law School, LL.B., 1960

Professional Career:

Law clerk, Hon. Caleb M. Wright, Chief Judge, U.S. District Court, District of Delaware, 1960-1961

Law clerk, Hon. Thurgood Marshall, U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, 1961-1962

Faculty, Yale Law School, 1962-1982

Research associate and lecturer, 1962-1964

Assistant / associate professor, 1964-1968

Professor of law, 1968-1982

Consultant, Subcommittee on Separation of Powers, U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, 1968-1972

Senior fellow, Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C., 1968-1970

Guggenheim fellow, Washington, D.C., 1971-1972

Adjutant scholar, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C., 1972-1981

Race or Ethnicity: White

Gender: Male

U.S. Circuit Judge U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
Richard C. Lee U.S. Courthouse
141 Church Street
Room 3400
New Haven, CT 06510
203-782-3682
Patti Aronsson Legal Adviser Justice 202-514-1204


23 August 2004

Judges Broomfield and Kazen are new in 2004, replacing Judges Stafford and Conway.

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court Members in 2004

Member Title Term
Expires
Address Telephone
Colleen Kollar-Kotelly Presiding Judge 5-18-09 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 4323
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3340
Robert C. Broomfield Judge 5-18-09 Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse
401 West Washington Street
Room 626
Phoenix, AZ 85003
602-322-7540
Stanley S. Brotman Judge 5-18-04 Mitchell H. Cohen U.S. Courthouse
One John F. Gerry Plaza
400 Cooper Street
Room 6040
P.O. Box 1029
Camden, NJ 08101-1029
856-757-5062
Harold A. Baker Judge 5-18-05 U.S. Courthouse
201 S. Vine Street
Room 338
Urbana, IL 61801
217-373-5835
Michael J. Davis Judge 5-18-06 300 S. Fourth Street
Room 14E
Minneapolis, MN 55402
612-664-5070
James Robertson Judge 5-06 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 6315
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3460
George P. Kazen Judge 5-18-10 Federal Building
1300 Matamoros Street
Room 311
Laredo, TX 78042
956-726-2237
Claude M. Hilton Judge 5-18-07 Albert V. Bryan U.S. Courthouse
401 Courthouse Square
Alexandria, VA 22314-5798
703-299-2112
James G. Carr Judge 5-8-08 U.S. Courthouse
1716 Spielbusch Avenue
Room 203
Toledo, OH 43624
419-259-6420
Nathaniel M. Gorton Judge 5-18-08 Harold D. Donohue Federal Building
595 Main Street
Room 411
Worcester, MA 01608
508-793-0587
Alternate Chambers
John Joseph Moakley U.S. Courthouse
One Courthouse Way
Room 5120
Boston, MA 02210
617-748-9248
Patti Aronson Legal Advisor

-

Justice 202-514-1204

7 May 2003. J. writes:

The 11th member of FISC identified as Sr. Judge Robert C. Broomfield, District of Arizona. Address and phone number as follows:

http://www.azd.uscourts.gov/azd/contacts.nsf/3c6da2df8306b3330725663b0009c271/cf204a935d9ab3740725661e0056ea44?OpenDocument

9 April 2003. J. writes:

As a follow on to the above subject, it may interest you to know that Sec. 208 of H.R. 3162 (Patriot Act) "Designation of Judges", stipulates that the FISA body is composed of 11 (not 10) District Judges.  I have been unable to find any other information as to whom the 11th Judge is....perhaps your sources may provide us with the name of the 'infamous eleventh'?  :~)

From: http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/hr3162.html

SEC. 208. DESIGNATION OF JUDGES.

Section 103(a) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803(a)) is amended by--
(1) striking 'seven district court judges' and inserting '11 district court judges'; and

(2) inserting 'of whom no fewer than 3 shall reside within 20 miles of the District of Columbia' after 'circuits'.

9 April 2003. Thanks to A.

See also: "Inside America’s Secret Court: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court," by Patrick S. Poole

See also the Alien Terrorist Removal Court members (same in 2003): http://www.uscourts.gov/ttb/septtb96/alien.htm


FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE COURT

Address: Department of Justice, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20530

Biographical information on the judges is available at www.martindale.com

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court Members in 2003

Member Title Term
Expires
Address Telephone
Colleen Kollar-Kotelly Presiding Judge 5-18-09 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 4323
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3340
William Stafford Judge 5-18-03 110 E. Park Avenue
Room 208
Tallahassee, Fl 32301
850-521-3611
Stanley S. Brotman Judge 5-18-04 Mitchell H. Cohen U.S. Courthouse
One John F. Gerry Plaza
400 Cooper Street
Room 6040
P.O. Box 1029
Camden, NJ 08101-1029
856-757-5062
Harold A. Baker Judge 5-18-05 U.S. Courthouse
201 S. Vine Street
Room 338
Urbana, IL 61801
217-373-5835
Michael J. Davis Judge 5-18-06 300 S. Fourth Street
Room 14E
Minneapolis, MN 55402
612-664-5070
James Roberston Judge 5-06 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 6315
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3460
John Edward Conway Judge 5-18-07 U.S. Courthouse
333 Lomas Boulevard, N.W.
Room 740
Albuquerque, NM 87102
505-348-2200
Claude M. Hilton Judge 5-18-07 Albert V. Bryan U.S. Courthouse
401 Courthouse Square
Alexandria, VA 22314-5798
703-299-2112
James G. Carr Judge 5-8-08 U.S. Courthouse
1716 Spielbusch Avenue
Room 203
Toledo, OH 43624
419-259-6420
Nathaniel M. Gorton Judge 5-18-08 Harold D. Donohue Federal Building
595 Main Street
Room 411
Worcester, MA 01608
508-793-0587
Alternate Chambers
John Joseph Moakley U.S. Courthouse
One Courthouse Way
Room 5120
Boston, MA 02210
617-748-9248


Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court Members in 2002

Member Title Term
Expires
Address Telephone
Royce C. Lamberth Presiding Judge 5-18-02 E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse
333 Constitution Avennue, N.W.
Room 4434
Washington, DC 20001
202-354-3380
William Stafford Judge 5-18-03 110 E. Park Avenue
Room 208
Tallahassee, Fl 32301
850-521-3611
Stanley S. Brotman Judge 5-18-04 Mitchell H. Cohen U.S. Courthouse
One John F. Gerry Plaza
400 Cooper Street
Room 6040
P.O. Box 1029
Camden, NJ 08101-1029
856-757-5062
Harold A. Baker Judge 5-18-05 U.S. Courthouse
201 S. Vine Street
Room 338
Urbana, IL 61801
217-373-5835
Michael J. Davis Judge 5-18-06 300 S. Fourth Street
Room 14E
Minneapolis, MN 55402
612-664-5070
Claude M. Hilton Judge 5-18-07 Albert V. Bryan U.S. Courthouse
401 Courthouse Square
Alexandria, VA 22314-5798
703-299-2112
Nathaniel M. Gorton Judge 5-18-08 Harold D. Donohue Federal Building
595 Main Street
Room 411
Worcester, MA 01608
508-793-0587
Alternate Chambers
John Joseph Moakley U.S. Courthouse
One Courthouse Way
Room 5120
Boston, MA 02210
617-748-9248